Food technology, or Food tech for short is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food.
Food scientists and food technologists study the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. Depending on their area of specialization, food scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food, according to industry and government specifications and regulations. Consumers seldom think of the vast array of foods and the research and development that has resulted in the means to deliver tasty, nutritious, safe, and convenient foods.
In some schools, food technology is part of the curriculum and teaches, alongside how to cook, nutrition and the food manufacturing process.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food is processed and sealed in an airtight container. The process was first developed as a French military discovery by Nicolas Appert. The packaging prevents microorganisms from entering and proliferating inside.
To prevent the food from being spoiled before and during containment, quite a number of methods are used: pasteurization, boiling (and other applications of high temperature over a period of time), refrigeration, freezing, drying, vacuum treatment, antimicrobial agents that are natural to the recipe of the foodstuff being preserved, a sufficient dose of ionizing radiation, submersion in a strongly saline, acid, base, osmotically extreme (for example very sugary) or other microbe-challenging environments.
No such method is perfectly dependable as a preservative. For example, spore forming thermal resistant microorganisms, such as Clostridium botulinum (which causes botulism) can still survive.
From a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity (a pH more than 4.6) need sterilization under high temperature (116-130░C). To achieve temperatures above the boiling point requires the use of a pressure canner. Foods that must be pressure canned include most vegetables, meats, seafood, poultry, and dairy products. The only foods that may be safely canned in an ordinary boiling water bath are highly acidic ones with a pH below 4.6, such as fruits, pickled vegetables, or other foods to which acidic additives have been added.
The main aim of food preservation is to minimize the growth of microorganisms during the
storage period, thus promoting longer shelf life and reduced hazard from eating the food. Fruit and
vegetables are an important supplement to the human diet ass they provide the essential minerals and
vitamins and fibre required for maintaining health. For various reasons, this abundance of production is
not fully utilized and about 25-30% of it is wasted due to spoilage.
Most of fruits and vegetables are seasonal crops and perishable in nature. In a good season
there may be a local glut, particularly of fruit, but because of insufficient transport facilities, lack of good
roads and poor availability of packing materials, the surplus cannot be taken quickly enough to the natural
markets in urban areas. Moreover, the surplus often cannot be stored for sale in the off-season because
of inadequate local cold storage facilities. Thus the cultivators do not get a good price for their produce
because of the glut and some of it is spoiled resulting in complete loss.
Two approaches are possible for solving this problem. One is the creation/expansion of cold
storage facilities in the fruit and vegetable producing regions themselves, as also in the major urban
consumption centres, to ensure supply of fresh fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Another
approach is to process the fruits and vegetables into various products that could be preserved for a long
time, and add to the value of the product. With increasing urbanization, rise in middleclass purchasing
power, change in food habits and the dying out of the practice of making preserve in individual homes, i.e.
dehydrated foods, pickles etc. in the domestic market. Moreover, there is considerable demand for some
of these products in foreign markets e.g. Mangoes both fresh and canned, fruit juices, salted cashew and
good foreign exchanges.
Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or slaughtered and butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products. Similar processes are used to produce animal feed.
Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles for Preservation of fruits and vegetables of organic agriculture in soil building and conservation, pest management, and heirloom variety preservation.
The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. Horticulture is also sometimes defined simply as "agriculture minus the plough." Instead of the plough, horticulture makes use of human labour and gardener's hand tools, although small machine tools like rotary tillers are common now.
Preservative coating and method for preserving fresh foods seal coating, edibile coating There is disclosed a preservative coating for fresh fruits and vegetables. The coating comprises approximately a active elements include approximately two parts partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and one part stearic acid.
Fruits and vegetables are attractive and eye-catching to a large degree becouse of richness of pigments that they contain. Preservation of chlorophyll in vegetables, red to purple anthocyanins, in both fruits and vegetables
FOOD Freshly® is a company since 1994 involved in research, development and production of an ingenious formulation of mineral nutrients freshness retainer (edible coating) Food preservative manufacturers company for fresh food processing industry in the international market.
Food preservative manufacturers (FOOD Freshly) provides antioxidants for fresh cut apples, fresh cut salads, fresh cut vegetables, potato processing, fresh cut fruits and asparagus preservation. As turnkey solution for food processing industries through our European Patented food processing technology for shelf life extension of fresh process foods, which extent the shelf life of food storage up to 21 days.
Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or greatly slow down spoilage (loss of quality, edibility or nutritive value) caused or accelerated by micro-organisms. Some methods, however, use benign bacteria, yeasts or fungi to add specific qualities and to preserve food (e.g., cheese, wine). Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is important in preserving its value as food. This is culturally dependent, as what qualifies as food fit for humans in one culture may not qualify in another culture.
Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms, as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. It also includes processes to inhibit natural ageing and discolouration that can occur during food preparation such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples which causes browning when apples are cut. Some preservation methods require the food to be sealed after treatment to prevent recontamination with microbes; others, such as drying, allow food to be stored without any special containment for long periods.
Common methods of applying these processes include drying, spray drying, freeze drying, freezing,vacuum-packing, canning, preserving in syrup, sugar crystallisation, food irradiation, and adding preservatives or inert gases such as carbon dioxide. Other methods that not only help to preserve food, but also add flavour, include pickling, salting, smoking, preserving in syrup or alcohol, sugar crystallisation and curing.
One of the oldest methods of food preservation is by drying, which reduces water activity sufficiently to prevent or delay bacterial growth. Drying also reduces weight, making food more portable. Most types of meat can be dried; a good example is beef biltong. Many fruits can also be dried; for example, the process is often applied to apples, pears, bananas, mangoes, papaya, apricot, and coconut. Zante currants, sultanas and raisins are all forms of dried grapes. Drying is also the normal means of preservation for cereal grains such as wheat, maize, oats, barley, rice, millet and rye.
Freezing is also one of the most commonly used processes commercially and domestically for preserving a very wide range of food including prepared food stuffs which would not have required freezing in their unprepared state. For example, potato waffles are stored in the freezer, but potatoes themselves require only a cool dark place to ensure many months' storage. Cold stores provide large volume, long-term storage for strategic food stocks held in case of national emergency in many countries.
Vacuum-packing stores food in a vacuum environment, usually in an air-tight bag or bottle. The vacuum environment strips bacteria of oxygen needed for survival, slowing spoiling. Vacuum-packing is commonly used for storing nuts to reduce loss of flavor from oxidation.
Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material is cooked in sugar to the point of crystallisation and the resultant product is then stored dry. This method is used for the skins of citrus fruit (candied peel), angelica and ginger. A modification of this process produces glacÚ fruit such as glacÚ cherries where the fruit is preserved in sugar but is then extracted from the syrup and sold, the preservation being maintained by the sugar content of the fruit and the superficial coating of syrup. The use of sugar is often combined with alcohol for preservation of luxury products such as fruit in brandy or other spirits. These should not be confused with fruit flavored spirits such as cherry brandy or Sloe gin.
Canning involves cooking food, sealing it in sterile cans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill or weaken any remaining bacteria as a form of sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert . Various foods have varying degrees of natural protection against spoilage and may require that the final step occur in a pressure cooker. High-acid fruits like strawberries require no preservatives to can and only a short boiling cycle, whereas marginal fruits such as tomatoes require longer boiling and addition of other acidic elements. Low acid foods, such as vegetables and meats require pressure canning. Food preserved by canning or bottling is at immediate risk of spoilage once the can or bottle has been opened.
Lack of quality control in the canning process may allow ingress of water or micro-organisms. Most such failures are rapidly detected as decomposition within the can causes gas production and the can will swell or burst. However, there have been examples of poor manufacture (underprocessing) and poor hygiene allowing contamination of canned food by the obligate anaerobe Clostridium botulinum, which produces an acute toxin within the food, leading to severe illness or death. This organism produces no gas or obvious taste and remains undetected by taste or smell. Its toxin is denatured by cooking, though. Cooked mushrooms, handled poorly and then canned, can support the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which produces a toxin that is not destroyed by canning or subsequent reheating.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a method for processing cells by means of brief pulses of a strong electric field. PEF holds potential as a type of low temperature alternative pasteurization process for sterilizing food products. In PEF processing, a substance is placed between two electrodes, then the pulsed electric field is applied. The electric field enlarges the pores of the cell membranes which kills the cells and releases their contents. PEF for food processing is a developing technology still being researched. There have been limited industrial applications of PEF processing for the pasteurization of fruit juices.
High pressure food preservation refers to high pressure used for food preservation. "Pressed inside a vessel exerting 70,000 pounds per square inch or more, food can be processed so that it retains its fresh appearance, flavour, texture and nutrients while disabling harmful microorganisms and slowing spoilage." By 2001, adequate commercial equipment was developed so that by 2005 the process was being used for products ranging from orange juice to guacamole to deli meats and widely sold.